martes, 5 de abril de 2011

Law of the Constitution in the environment.

Universidad Central del Ecuador

Names:  Carolina Perugachi
                 Yadira Flores
                 David Caizapanta
                 Estefanía Cruz
Curso: AE2-3
Topic: Law of the Constitution in the environment.

Section One
Nature and environment
Article 395 .- The Constitution recognizes the following environmental principles:
1. The State guarantees a sustainable model of development, environmentally balanced and respectful of cultural diversity, to conserve biodiversity and natural regeneration capacity ecosystems, and ensure the satisfaction of the needs of
present and future generations.

2. Environmental management policies will be applied transverse
and shall be binding on the State in all
levels and by all natural or legal persons in the territory

3. The State will assure to the active and permanent individuals, communities, people and affected nations, the planning, execution and control of any activity that it generates the environmental impacts.
4. In the event of the doubt on the reach of the legal dispositions in environmental matter, they will apply from the most favorable way to nature protection.

Section 396. - The State will adopt the appropriate politicians and the opportune measures that avoid the negative environmental impacts when certainty of damage exists.
In the event of doubt on the environmental impact of any action or omisión,aunque scientific evidence of the damage, the State doesn't exist he/she took to adopt the measures for the opportune protection.
The environmental obligation is strict. Any intent of damage, besides being sanctioned is economically also obligatory to restore the ecosystem totally in its entirety and to the individuals that it composes it as well as to the affected communities.

Article 397. - In the event of environmental damages the State acted in an immediate way to guarantee the health and the restoration of the environmental damage
Besides the sanction, under the conditions and with the procedures that the law establesca to assure to the individuals and the collective right to live in a healthy and ecologically balanced atmosphere, the state commits to:
1. Permir to any natural or legal person, community or human group, to exercise the legal stocks and to go without prejudice to the judicial and administrative organs of their direct interest to obtain of her protection of the atmosphere including to request measures that allow to cease the threat or the environmental damage. the tests about the nonexistence of damage potential will relapse on the defendant.
2. To establish effective mechanisms for the prevention and control of the environmental contamination, restoring the degraded natural spaces and the sustainable handling of the natural resources.
3. To regulate the production, import, distribution, use and disposition of toxic dangerous for people or the atmosphere.

4. To assure the intangibilidad of the protected natural areas, in such a way that is guaranteed the conservation of the biodiversity and maintenance of the functions of the ecosystem ndo the inviolability of protected natural areas, so that to assure the biodiversity conservation and maintenance of ecological functions of ecosystems. The address and administration that the natural areas will be protected by the State.

5. To establish a national system of prevention, address of risk disasters and natural disasters, based on the immediacy principles, effectiveness, caution, responsibility and solidarity.

Article 398.- Any decision or approval that may affect state
environment to be consulted on the community, which will be reported
comprehensive and timely. The individual consultant will be the State. The law
regulate the consultation, citizen participation, timing,
individual consultation and assessment criteria and objections to the
activity subject to consultation.
The State values the opinion of the community according to criteria
in law and international human rights instruments.
If of that consultation process is overwhelming opposition of the
respective community, the decision whether to execute the project will
adopted by resolution duly reasoned request
for senior management in accordance with the law.
Article 399. - The full exercise of state supervision over the environment and

responsibility of citizenship in their preservation, will be articulated
through a decentralized national system of environmental management,
will be responsible for advocacy of the environment and nature.

Section Two
Article 400 .- The State shall exercise sovereignty over biodiversity, which
administration and management would be handled with intergenerational responsibility.
Public interest is declared the conservation of biodiversity and all
components, in particular the agricultural and wild biodiversity and
country's genetic heritage.
Article 401.- Ecuador declares to be free of GM crops and seeds.
Exceptionally, and only in case of national interest due
informed by the Presidency of the Republic and approved by the
National Assembly, may introduce GM seeds and crops
modified. The State shall regulate under strict biosecurity,
use and development of modern biotechnology and its products and
experimentation, use and marketing. It prohibits the use of
risky or experimental biotechnology.
Article 402 .- It prohibits the granting of rights, including
intellectual property on or synthesized products obtained
from the collective knowledge associated with the national biodiversity.

Article 403.- The State did not engage in agreements or arrangements
cooperation to include clauses that undermine the conservation and
sustainable management of biodiversity, human health and rights
collective nature.
Section Three
Natural heritage and ecosystems
Section 404 .- Ecuador's natural heritage unique and invaluable
includes, inter alia, physical, biological and geological
value from the standpoint of environmental, scientific, cultural or
landscape requires the protection, conservation, restoration and promotion.
Its management will be subject to the principles and guarantees established in the
Constitution and will be conducted according to land use and
ecological zoning, according to the law.
Article 405.- The national system of protected areas ensure
biodiversity conservation and maintenance functions
ecological. The system is integrated by the state subsystems, autonomous
decentralized, community and private sectors, and governance and regulation will
exercised by the state. The State shall provide financial resources
necessary for the financial sustainability of the system and encourage
participation of communities, peoples and nations who have
ancestrally inhabited protected areas administration and management.
Natural persons or legal entities may not acquire a
no land title or concessions in the areas of national security or
in protected areas, in accordance with the law.
Article 406 .- The State shall regulate the conservation, management and sustainable use,
recovery, and domain constraints and fragile ecosystems
threatened, among others, the moors, swamps, cloud forests,
wet and dry tropical forests and mangroves, marine ecosystems and
marine and coastal.
Article 407 .- It is prohibited the extraction of nonrenewable resources
protected areas and in areas declared as intangibles, including
logging. Exceptionally, these resources may be exploited
reasoned request of the Presidency of the Republic and after
declaration of national interest by the National Assembly, which,
thinks fit, may convene a referendum.

Section Four
Natural Resources
Article 408 .- Property are inalienable, and undistrainable
State non-renewable natural resources and, in general, products
subsurface mineral and hydrocarbon substances whose
nature is different from the soil, including those found in
areas covered by the waters of the territorial sea and maritime zones and
as biodiversity and genetic heritage and the radio spectrum.
This property may only be operated in strict compliance
environmental principles enshrined in the Constitution.
The State will participate in the benefits of exploiting these resources,
in an amount not less than those of the company that exploits them.
The State shall ensure that the mechanisms of production, consumption and use
natural resources and preserve and recover energy cycles
allow natural and living with dignity.
Section Five
Article 409 .- It is of public interest and national conservation priority
soil, especially its topsoil. Will establish a regulatory framework for
protection and sustainable use to prevent their degradation, including
caused by pollution, desertification and erosion.
In areas affected by land degradation and desertification,
State shall develop and encourage afforestation, reforestation and
revegetation to avoid monoculture and use, preferably,
native species adapted to the area.
Article 410 .- The State shall provide to farmers and communities
rural support for conservation and restoration of soils and
development of agricultural practices that protect and promote
food sovereignty.
Section Six
Article 411.- The State shall guarantee the conservation, restoration and management
Integrated water resources, watersheds and streams
associated ecological hydrological cycle. Regulate any activity that is
can affect the quality and quantity of water, and the balance of
ecosystems, especially in the sources and recharge areas.
The sustainability of ecosystems and human consumption will
priority in the use and water use.
Article 412.- The authority in charge of water management will be responsible for
planning, regulation and control. This authority will cooperate and
coordinate with which it is responsible for environmental management
ensure water management with an ecosystem approach.
Section seven
Biosphere, urban ecology and alternative energy
Article 413 .- The State shall promote energy efficiency, development and use
practices and environmentally clean technologies and sound, as well as
renewable energy, diversified, low-impact and which do not pose
threatening food sovereignty, ecological balance of ecosystems and
the right to water.
Article 414 .- The State shall take appropriate and crossbars
mitigation of climate change by limiting emissions
greenhouse gases, deforestation and pollution
Atmospheric take measures for the conservation of forests and
vegetation, and protect the population at risk.
Article 415.- The central government and autonomous governments
adopt comprehensive policies and participatory land use
urban and land use to regulate urban growth, the
urban wildlife management and encourage the establishment of green areas.

Autonomous governments develop application programs
sound water, recycling and reduction and adequate treatment
solid and liquid waste. It will encourage and facilitate land transport
non-motorized, particularly through the establishment of bicycle routes.

Sección Uno

La naturaleza y ambiente

Artículo 395. - La Constitución reconoce los principios medioambientales lo siguiente:
1. El Estado garantiza a modelo sustentable de desarrollo, medioambientalmente equilibró y respetuoso de diversidad cultural, para conservar biodiversidad y los
ecosistemas de capacidad de regeneración naturales, y asegura la satisfacción de las necesidades de presente y las generaciones futuras.
2. Se aplicarán las políticas de dirección medioambientales transversas y estarán ligando en el Estado en todos los niveles y por las personas todo naturales o legales en el nacional del territorio.

3. El Estado asegurará a los individuos activos y permanentes, comunidades, gentes y naciones afectadas, la planificación, ejecución y mando de cualquier actividad que genera los impactos medioambientales.
4. En caso de la duda sobre el alcance de las disposiciones legales en materia ambiental, ellos aplicarán de la manera más favorable a protección de naturaleza.

Sección 396. - El Estado adoptará políticas apropiadas y medidas al preventnegative
impactos medioambientales dónde hay certeza de daño.
Si en la duda sobre el impacto medioambiental de cualquier acción u omisión, aunque hay ninguna evidencia científica de daño, el Estado tomará la protección eficaz y oportuna.
La obligación medioambiental es estricta. Cualquier daño al ambiente, además de las multas, también involucrará la obligación para restaurar el ecosistema totalmente y compensar individuos y comunidades afectó.

Cada uno de los actores en los procesos de producción, distribución, mercadeo y uso de bueno o servicios asumirá que la responsabilidad directa para previene cualquier impacto medioambiental, mitigar y reparar el daño han causado, y para mantener un sistema del mando medioambiental permanente. El acto procesal para proseguir y castigar para el daño medioambiental se obstruya.

Artículo 397. - Si el Estado que el daño medioambiental actuará la subsidiaria inmediatamente para asegurar la salud y ecosistemas de la restauración. Además de la sanción, el Estado repitió contra el operador de la actividad que produjo las
vinculaciones de obligationswhich de daño la compensación llena bajo las condiciones y los procedimientos establecido por la ley. La responsabilidad también la mentira en servidores o servidores responsable por llevar a cabo el ambiente de los cheques. Para asegurar el individuo y el derecho colectivo para vivir en un saludable y ecológicamente el ambiente equilibrado, el Estado quiere:

1. Permita a cualquier persona natural o legal, comunidad o humano de grupo, el tal acto procesal y va a las cortes y administrativo, asunto de interés directo para obtenerlos protección del ambiente eficaz, incluso la posibilidad de buscar el desagravio por mandato judicial para dejar de permitir la amenaza o el daño medioambiental en litigio. El peso de la prueba en la falta de potencial o daño efectivo queda con la actividad del gerente o el demandado.

2. Establezca los mecanismos eficaces para la prevención y mando la polución medioambiental, restaurando la pendiente del áreas natural y la dirección sustentable de recursos naturales.
3. Regule la producción, importación, distribución, uso y disposición de tóxico y arriesgado a humanos o el ambiente.

Sección 396. - El Estado adoptará las políticas apropiadas y las medidas oportunas que evitan los impactos medioambientales negativos cuando exista certeza de daño.
En caso de duda sobre el impacto medioambiental de cualquier acción u omisión,aunque no exista evidencia científica del daño, el Estado tomara adoptar las medidas para la protección oportuna.
La obligación medioambiental es estricta. Cualquier intento de daño, además de ser sancionado economicamente también es obligatorio restaurar el ecosistema en su totalidad totalmente y a los individuos que lo compone así como a las comunidades afectadas.

Artículo 397. - En caso de daños ambientales el Estado actuara de manera inmediata para garantizar la salud y la restauracion del daño medioambiental
Además de la sanción, en las condiciones y con los procedimientos que la ley establesca  Para asegurar a los  individuos y el derecho colectivo para vivir en un ambiente sano  y ecológicamente equilibrado, el estado se compromete a:
1. Permir a cualquier persona natural o legal, comunidad o grupo humano, ejercer las acciones legales y acudir a los organos judiciales y administrativos sin perjuicio de su interes directo para obtener de ella protección del ambiente incluyendo solicitar medidas que permitan cesar la amenaza o el daño ambiental. las pruebas sobre la inexistencia de daño potencial recaera sobre el demandado.
2. Establecer mecanismos eficaces para la prevención y control de la contaminación medioambiental, restaurando los espacios naturales degradados y el manejo sustentable de los recursos naturales.
3. Regular la producción, importación, distribución, uso y disposición de tóxico peligrosos para las personas o el ambiente.

4. Asegurar la intangibilidad de las areas naturales protegidas, de tal forma que se garantice la conservacion de la biodiversidad y mantenimiento de las funciones del ecosistema ndo la inviolabilidad de áreas naturales protegidas, para que para asegurar la conservación de biodiversidad y mantenimiento de funciones ecológicas de ecosistemas. La dirección y administración que las áreas naturales serán protegidas por el Estado.

5. Establecer un sistema nacional de prevención, dirección de riesgo desastres y catástrofes naturales, basado en los principios de inmediación, eficacia, cuatela, responsabilidad y solidaridad.

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